Curriculum Development and Evaluation

The CIPP Model

Definitions

            There are many varied definitions of curriculum and evaluation. For the purposes of this assignment the work of Oliva (1988) serves as the definitional base.

Curriculum is defined as a “plan or program for all of the experiences which the learner encounters under the direction of the school [organization or institution]. In practice, the curriculum consists of a number of plans, in a written form and of varying scope, which delineate the desired learning experiences. The curriculum, therefore, may be a unit, a course, a sequence of courses, the school's [organization or institution] entire program of studies and may take place outside of the classroom or school” (p. 9 - 10).

Evaluation is defined as “the process of delineating, obtaining, and providing useful information for judging decision alternatives” (p. 476). The primary decision alternatives to consider based upon the evaluation results are: 1) to maintain the curriculum as is; 2) to modify the curriculum; or 3) to eliminate the curriculum.

Models of Curriculum Development and Evaluation

            There are many models available for curriculum development and curriculum evaluation. The work of Ralph Tyler is considered seminal in the area of curriculum theory and development.  While many models for curriculum evaluation exist, the CIPP (Context, Input, Process, Product) model is one of the most widely used.  The Phi Kappa Delta National Study Committee on Evaluation, chaired by Daniel L. Stufflebeam, developed the CIPP model of curriculum evaluation. References to evaluation studies that make use of the CIPP model are abundant.

Use of the CIPP Model of Evaluation for Curriculum Development

            As you commence your work in this course, you will quickly note that the CIPP Model is not cited as a model used for curriculum development, but as a model used for curriculum evaluation.  Assignment 6, however, specifies that CIPP may be used as a model for curriculum development.  At first this may seem confusing, if not inappropriate.   For that reason the following information is provided to help justify the approach called for in the development of a new or revised curriculum in this assignment.

 

The logic behind the use of a curriculum evaluation model for curriculum development is very basic.  Your professors are of the opinion that a well conceived and designed curriculum evaluation model should serve as an excellent model for curriculum development.  A model that is useful for making important decisions concerning the value and worth of the curriculum should be equally useful in the development of a curriculum.  We also believe that certain benefits are realized from using the same model for curriculum development and evaluation.  More specifically, when the framework for the curriculum evaluation is grounded in the curriculum development, interpretation of the evaluation results can be directly linked to specific curriculum components. The essential feedback loop of any successful model is clearly an integrated feature of the overall model.  Therefore, we consider using the CIPP Model of curriculum evaluation for curriculum development as a very feasible approach for this assignment.

 

Specific Application of the CIPP Model

 

The following table is intended to bridge the gap between the more common application of the CIPP Model for curriculum evaluation and our proposed use of the CIPP Model for curriculum development. 

 

CIPP Model Component

Use for Curriculum Development

Use for Curriculum Evaluation

Context

To define the operating context within which the curriculum will be delivered.  Determine the specific characteristics of the learners.  Most importantly, it helps to establish a rationale for the determination of the curriculum objectives.

To define the environment relevant to the curriculum, describing the actual and intended conditions of the program, identifying unmet needs, and diagnosing barriers that prevent needs from being met.

Input

To identify and assess the capabilities, strategies, and designs available for implementing the curriculum as related to the curriculum’s objectives.  Determine what internal resources are needed to enable achievement of the objectives and to search for external resources when required.  Also, the input phase considers the cost to implement the curriculum.

To determine to what extent available resources were used to achieve the curriculum objectives.

Process

To identify the procedural design that will be used to implement the curriculum.  The curriculum objectives are translated in specific activities that constitute the instructional design.  

To identify deficiencies in the procedural design or in the implementation of the curriculum, i.e., what actually took place during instruction.  To provide information necessary to make modifications to the implementation strategies used during instruction.  To maintain procedural documentation.

Products

To define the measurable outcomes of the curriculum both during and at the completion of instruction.  These outcomes are directly related to the curriculum objectives.

To compare actual outcomes against a standard of what is acceptable to make judgments to continue, terminate, modify, or refocus an activity.

 

 

Words of Encouragement

 

            Since this is most likely your first attempt at curriculum development, I encourage you to select a course to either create or redesign that is manageable within your current level of expertise.  I believe it is better for you to experiment with a smaller, more manageable project and doquality work than choose a project activity that becomes unmanageable for you.  Don’t be afraid to ask questions.  That is what I’m here for!

 

Good Luck!!!!